Visualizing Science in Media Revolutions

Late medieval and early modern science were witness to two exciting developments: first, new means of communicating observations became available, largely as a result of the printing press, and second, new instruments and techniques for observing the world emerged. In other words, the scientific practitioners of these times not only peered into previously unexplored corners of the cosmos, both far away and close at hand; they also had at their disposal new media with which to represent and report back to the world on what they had seen. This research group examines how these developments interacted with each other and thereby created a new culture of visualizing science.

Leiden University Libraries, MS BPL 3018, f. 152r. Diagram of a solar eclipse, in the student notebook of Johannes Knotter (Leuven, 1683).

The research group explores the modes of communication (such as letter writing for known recipients, and the unknown audiences of printed books) and media in which early modern scientific practitioners visualized their ideas and illustrated their objects of inquiry. A new visual culture was generated in the early modern period by those in pursuit of knowledge due to a variety of reasons, such as: new media (as a result of the printing press); new tools of observing the world (such as telescopes and microscopes); and the generation of new questions about nature and the world. By comparing media, tools, and modes of communication in different fields of early modern science, such as medicine, architecture, astronomy, and mathematics, the members of this research group will investigate the impact of new media on the way in which science was communicated visually. Furthermore, the group will study how new forms of visualization had an impact on the questions raised by early modern practitioners of science and medicine. Building on previous research on epistemic images, history of the book, and history of observation in science and medicine, the group's focus will be directed at questions such as:

  • How did the printing press have a lasting impact on the observational and visualization skills of early modern scientific practitioners?
  • How did scientific practitioners communicate visually for different audiences, in manuscript (letters, notebooks, hand-written books) alongside printed books?
  • How did early modern scientific practitioners deal with the practical and moral issues surrounding the making and manipulability of images?

The research group's expertise in studying media, visualization, and science, will also be put to use to study the impact of digital media and digital tools on current working practices in the humanities and sciences. How are current innovations in media technology and data storage impacting the role of images in our own research questions and research methods? Through a series of small workshops the group will collaborate with researchers in the humanities, digital humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences to open up new perspectives on how issues of new media and new methods of visualizing data pertain to our time. This exercise of reflection will raise an awareness of practices, possibilities, and struggles caused by the use of new media in both the past and the present.

Research Projects

<p>Collaborative Vision: Depicting Microscopic Observations</p>
With the discovery of the microscope in the early seventeenth century, an entirely new world became visible to the human eye. Images of these previously unseen objects were made in the form of drawings and prints and quickly started to circulate amongst European scientific practitioners. mehr
Microscope/Macrocosm: Early Modern Technology, Visualization and Representations of Nature
My dissertation research is on visual epistemology and representations of nature in the seventeenth century, which was a time that saw the earliest systematic considerations of the world using new technologies of vision that allowed people to see beyond the normal constraints of the unaided eye. mehr
Visualizing Theatres of Knowledge: The Science and Media of Epistemic Theatres in Early Modern Europe
During the Early Modern Period in Western Europe, the theatre – as an image, metaphor, and concept – became an important space for artists, scholars, and scientific practitioners to debate a wide range of epistemological issues surrounding transgressions of the boundaries between image and word, presentation and presence, and knower and knowledge. mehr
<p>Diagramme in den Wissenschaften der Frühen Neuzeit: Das Fallbeispiel Magnetismus</p>
Dieses Projekt untersucht die Herstellung, Typologie und Verwendung von Diagrammen in der frühneuzeitlichen Wissenschaft. Die Fallstudie konzentriert sich auf vormoderne Versuche (1300–1650), den Magnetismus durch Diagramme darzustellen und soll damit als Blaupause für andere historische Forschungsgebiete dienen. mehr


Flotsam. Writing the History of Objects Travelling without Texts

Beate Fricke
Online Event – Registration Required
22.09.2020 15:00 - 17:00

Describing and Visualizing the Underworld: Athanasius Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus and its Context

Monica Azzolini
Online Event – Registration Required
09.09.2020 11:00 - 13:00

Visualizing Language

27.02.2020 11:00 - 17:30
Villino Stroganoff, Via Gregoriana 22, 00187 Rom

Picturing Seeds of Poppy: Microscopes, Specimens and Visualization in 17th Century England

Christoffer Basse Eriksen
Admission until 11:30
29.01.2020 11:00 - 13:00
Villino Stroganoff, Via Gregoriana 22, 00187 Rom

Epistemic Imagery and their Functions: the Case of Diagrams

Christoph Lüthy
Admission until 11:30
13.12.2019 11:00 - 13:00
Villino Stroganoff, Via Gregoriana 22, 00187 Rom

Making the Map: Shared Knowledge in the Construction of Selenographies

Nydia Pineda de Ávila
11.11.2019 11:00
Villino Stroganoff, Via Gregoriana 22, 00187 Rom

Comparative Tables to Choose the Right World-System: Visual Astronomy before Newton

Flavia Marcacci
10.10.2019 11:00
Villino Stroganoff, Via Gregoriana 22, 00187 Rom

"Visualizing Science in Media Revolutions"

18.09.2019 17:00 c.t.
Villino Stroganoff, Via Gregoriana 22, 00187 Rom
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